- Protection granted to persons who have a well-founded fear of persecution on account of their race, religion, nationality, political opinions or belonging to a particular social group, as well as those at risk of torture or Cruel and unusual treatment or punishment.
- ASYLUM SEEKER
- A person seeking asylum. Before a determination can be made, it cannot be said whether the asylum seeker is a refugee or not. Asylum seekers receive refugee status determination after arriving in Canada.
- CANADIAN CITIZEN
- Under the Citizenship Act, a citizen is a person who is Canadian-born (born in or born outside of Canada to a Canadian citizen who was born in Canada or who was granted citizenship) or applied for and obtained Canadian citizenship (naturalization).
- CANADIAN EXPERIENCE CLASS
- Immigration category that allows foreign workers and recent foreign graduates working in Canada to apply for permanent residence.
- CULTURAL COMMUNITY
- Extensive social groups, coming from different nationalities (Italian, Vietnamese, etc.) of immigration and Indigenous nations, and constituting components of cultural diversity irrigating the channels of dissemination and exchange in Quebec society.
- CULTURAL DIVERSITY
- The character or state resulting from the presence of different cultures in a given territory or society. (Government Activity Thesaurus)
- DEPENDENT OF A REFUGEE
- A family member of a refugee in Canada whose application for permanent residence is processed at the same time as the principal applicant.
- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REFUGEE AND IMMIGRANT
- A refugee is forced to flee to save his or her life. An immigrant chooses to live in another country.
- DIRECT PATH TO CITIZENSHIP
- The process for a child born and adopted abroad by Canadian parents to be granted citizenship without first immigrating to Canada.
- A distinction, exclusion or preference based on prohibited grounds which has the effect of nullifying or impairing the right to full and equal recognition and enjoyment of the rights and freedoms of the individual. (Immigration, Diversity and Inclusion Québec)
- DUAL CITIZENSHIP OR MULTIPLE CITIZENSHIP
- Situation of a person who is the legal citizen of two or more countries at a time. Dual citizenship or multiple citizenships are permitted under Canadian citizenship legislation. Some countries do not.
- ECONOMIC IMMIGRANT
- A class of immigrants selected on the basis of their skills and ability to contribute to Canada’s economy. The economic immigration category includes skilled workers, provincial and territorial candidates, business people, skilled workers in Quebec and members of the Canadian experience class, as well as their spouses and their dependents.
- ECONOMIC MIGRANT
- A person who changes country to undertake work or to have a better economic future. This term is correctly used when the motivations are purely economic.
- A person who has left their own country in order to settle in another, typically for political reasons (Oxford Dictionary).
- FAMILY REUNIFICATION
- Whether they were resettled in Canada or arrived as asylum seekers, refugees must be able to quickly meet with their families. On several occasions, when refugees are forced to flee, parents are separated from their children or the spouses are separated from each other.
- FEDERAL SKILLED WORKER
- An immigrant selected as a permanent resident based on their education, work experience, knowledge of English and/or French, and other criteria that have been shown to help people succeed in the Canadian labour market. Spouses and children are included on the application. Quebec selects its own skilled workers, under the Quebec skilled worker class (QSW).
- GOVERNMENT-ASSISTED REFUGEE (GAR)
- A person who is outside Canada who has been recognized as a Convention refugee and who receives financial and other support from the Government of Canada or the Province of Quebec For one year after arriving in Canada. GARs are selected from applications submitted by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other referral organizations.
- HUMANITARIAN AND COMPASSIONATE APPLICATION (H & C)
- A person who would not normally be eligible for permanent residence in Canada may apply for H & C. Humanitarian and compassionate circumstances apply to persons in exceptional circumstances.
- ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS
- These terms are considered problematic because they criminalize the person, rather than the act of entering or staying illegally in a country. Moreover, the use of the term may lead to erroneous and hasty judgments about the status of the person. In the case of people fleeing persecution, international law recognizes that refugees may be forced to enter a country without authorization and it would therefore be inaccurate to describe them as “illegal migrants.”
- A person who is or has been a landed immigrant / permanent resident. A landed immigrant / permanent resident is a person who has legally immigrated to Canada but is not yet a Canadian citizen.
- IMMIGRANT CATEGORY BUSINESS PEOPLE
- A category that encompasses investors, entrepreneurs and self-employed workers. A person may become a permanent resident in this category based on his or her ability to successfully establish in Canada.
- IMMIGRANT INVESTOR
- A term used to describe an immigrant admitted to Canada who has experience in the operation of a business and has a net worth of at least CDN $ 1,600,000 that he has lawfully obtained; Or who made an investment of CDN $ 800,000.
- Involving all individuals without gender discrimination, sexual orientation, traditions, races, etc.
- INDEPENDENT REFUGEE
- A person recognized as a Convention refugee abroad or as a member of the host country class and who has sufficient financial resources to support himself or herself in Canada.
- Adapting members to a group or group to the global society; The degree to which individual and partial group behaviors agree with what the community expects. (Government Activity Thesaurus)
- Term used to describe dialogue aimed at bringing communities closer to different cultures.
- LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT
- Some types of applications require the applicant to have a certain level of proficiency in French or English. The level of language proficiency required differs depending on the type of application submitted.
- A term used in Canada to refer to the coexistence of different cultures within the population.
- POLITICAL OR ECONOMIC REFUGEE
- these terms have no meaning in the legal sense and are confusing because they incorrectly suggest that there are different categories of refugees.
- Attitudes and opinions about a person or a social group, based on insufficient or inadequate information. Although it may be both favorable and unfavorable, prejudice implies an abusive generalization which reduces a person or a social group to characteristics that are wrongly assigned and which does not recognize the person or group in all its complexity.
- PRIVATELY SPONSORED REFUGEE
- A person outside Canada who has been determined to be a Convention refugee or member of the Country of Asylum class and who receives financial and other support from a private sponsor for one year after their arrival in Canada. Private sponsors are Sponsorship Agreement Holders (SAHs), Groups of Five or Community Sponsors.
- PROTECTED PERSON
- A person who is a Convention refugee or a person in a similar situation who has been recognized by a Canadian visa officer abroad, by the Immigration and Refugee Board as a refugee or Person to be protected in Canada, or a person who has received a favorable response to the pre-removal risk assessment.
- PROTECTED TEMPORARY RESIDENT
- A person admitted to Canada on a temporary resident permit because a Canadian visa officer abroad has determined that his or her life, liberty or physical integrity was directly threatened.
- The process of classifying individuals and social groups according to physical or cultural attributes. Although it is now recognized that there are no racial groups, the persistence of racist beliefs and practices has the effect of producing racialized groups, treated differently often because of widespread cultural attributes. (Immigration, Diversity and Inclusion Québec)
- Racism refers to all beliefs and practices, both individual and institutional, that exclude and inferiorate a person or a social group on the basis of external physical attributes such as skin color, texture Hair, shape of the eyes. Theory according to which certain “races” would be superior to others. Attitude of systematic hostility towards a certain category of persons.
- REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION
- A form of relaxation of the law or of a regulation aimed at combating discrimination caused by the strict application of a norm which, in certain respects, could undermine the right to equality, a citizen.
- The person in Canada or abroad who is recognized as a refugee under the 1951 Geneva Convention or as a protected person is presumed to have refugee status in Canada. This status is granted under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. When a refugee becomes a citizen of another country (like Canada), he is no longer a refugee.
- REFUGEE ADMITTED TO CANADA
- Permanent resident of the refugee class whose refugee claim was accepted and who subsequently applied for and obtained permanent resident status in Canada.
- REFUGEE CLAIMANT
- A person who has applied for asylum (these terms are more commonly used in Canada than “asylum seeker”). A person who has applied for asylum in Canada and is awaiting a decision on the application of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada.
- REFUGEE TRAVEL DOCUMENT
- A document that persons in Canada with protected status may use to travel outside of Canada. These include refugees and persons who have obtained a favorable decision with respect to their request for a pre-removal risk assessment.
- RELATION OF CONVENIENCE
- Marriage, common-law relationship, conjugal relationship, or non-genuine adoption or entered into for the purpose of obtaining status or privilege in Canada. The persons concerned are not members of the family class.
- RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS (CITIZENSHIP)
- The length of time a permanent resident must live in Canada to be eligible for Canadian citizenship.
- SAFE THIRD COUNTRY
- A country other than Canada and the country of alleged persecution where a person may apply for asylum. In Canada, the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act sets out the criteria for qualifying a safe third country.
- SECOND GENERATION (SECOND GENERATION OR MORE)
- Refers to persons who were born in Canada and have at least one parent who was born outside Canada or who arrived in Canada at a very young age. The third generation or more refers to persons born in Canada whose two parents were born in Canada.
- SPONSORED PERSON
- A foreign national who has applied for permanent residence under the family class, who may be sponsored by an approved Canadian sponsor and who meets the requirements of the class of family class.
- SPONSORSHIP REQUIREMENTS
- Requirements that a person must meet in order to sponsor a family member who wishes to come to Canada as a permanent resident.
- Simplified beliefs and representations of a person or social group to which attributes are associated, usually perceived physical or cultural characteristics. Like prejudice, the stereotype may be positive or negative, but it is nevertheless an abusive simplification that does not recognize the person or group for what it is. (Immigration, Diversity and Inclusion Québec)
- TEMPORARY FOREIGN WORKER PROGRAM
- This program allows employers to recruit foreign workers to fill short-term labor and skill shortages when there are no able-bodied Canadians. A labor market impact study (EIMT) must be conducted to recruit under this program.
- TEMPORARY RESIDENT
- (Related Terms Visitor, Tourist) Foreigner who is legally in Canada for a short period of time. Temporary residents include students, foreign workers and visitors, such as tourists.
- VISIBLE MINORITIES
- Under the Employment Equity Act, visible minorities are defined as “persons other than Aboriginal, non-Caucasian or non-white.” They are mainly the following groups South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese. The other three groups designated under the Employment Equity Act are women, Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities.
- WITHOUT PAPERS / STATUS
- A person who has not received permission to remain in the country or who has remained beyond the period of validity of his / her visa. Included in this term are persons who have been penalized by system flaws, such as refused asylum seekers who are not dismissed because of a generalized risk situation in their country of origin.